Visualizing the EU's Energy Dependency – Visual Capitalist

Visualizing Ukraine’s Top Trading Partners and Products
Putting EV Valuations Into Perspective
Mapped: Corruption in Countries Around the World
A Visual Guide to Stock Splits
Visualizing the State of Global Debt, by Country
How the Top Cryptocurrencies Performed in 2021
The 20 Internet Giants That Rule the Web
Visualizing the Power of the World’s Supercomputers
Companies Gone Public in 2021: Visualizing IPO Valuations
A Visual Guide to Profile Picture NFTs
Who Are the Russian Oligarchs?
The World’s Billionaires, by Generation
Where Does the World’s Ultra-Wealthy Population Live Today?
Visualizing the State of Global Debt, by Country
This Infographic Breaks Down Careers In Finance, From Hedge Funds to M&A
Visualizing How COVID-19 Antiviral Pills and Vaccines Work at the Cellular Level
Mapped: The Most Common Illicit Drugs in the World
Visualizing The Most Widespread Blood Types in Every Country
Pandemic Recovery: Have North American Downtowns Bounced Back?
Ranked: The Most Prescribed Drugs in the U.S.
Interactive Map: Crude Oil Pipelines and Refineries of the U.S. and Canada
Visualizing the EU’s Energy Dependency
Mapped: Gas Prices in America at All-Time Highs
The Clean Energy Employment Shift, by 2030
The Science of Nuclear Weapons, Visualized
Mapped: Gas Prices in America at All-Time Highs
Mapped: Global Happiness Levels in 2022
Mapped: All the World’s Military Personnel
A Visual Guide to Europe’s Member States
4 Historical Maps that Explain the USSR
The 50 Minerals Critical to U.S. Security
Visualizing China’s Dominance in Clean Energy Metals
The Periodic Table of Commodity Returns (2012-2021)
Visualizing the Abundance of Elements in the Earth’s Crust
Rare Earth Elements: Where in the World Are They?
The Clean Energy Employment Shift, by 2030
Putting EV Valuations Into Perspective
Visualizing the World’s Biggest Rice Producers
Ranked: The Top 10 Countries by Energy Transition Investment
Visualizing China’s Dominance in Clean Energy Metals
Published
on
By
visualizing the eu's energy dependency – visual capitalist Subscribe to the Elements free mailing list for more like this
EU Energy Dependency
This was originally posted on Elements. Sign up to the free mailing list to get beautiful visualizations on natural resource megatrends in your email every week.
In response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine, the U.S. and EU have imposed heavy sanctions aimed at crippling the Russian economy. However, these bold actions also come with some potentially messy complications: Russia is not only one of the world’s largest exporters of energy products, but it is also Europe’s biggest supplier of these fuels.
As of October 2021, Russia supplied 25% of all oil imported by the EU, which is three times more than the second-largest trade partner. Naturally, the policies and circumstances that have led to this dependency have been under major scrutiny in recent weeks.
To help you learn more, this infographic visualizes energy data from Eurostat.
To start, let’s compare the energy dependence of each EU member, both in 2000 and 2020 (the latest year available). This metric shows the extent to which a country relies upon imports to meet its energy needs.
Note that Denmark’s value of -35.9% for the year 2000 is not a typo. Rather, it means that the country was a net exporter of energy.
Over this 20-year timeframe, the EU-27 average country’s energy dependence has increased from 56.3% to 57.5%, meaning EU members became slightly more reliant on energy imports over those two decades.
Looking further into energy imports reveals that Russia is the main supplier of crude oil, coal, and natural gas. Continue below for more details.
The EU imports more crude oil from Russia than the next three countries combined.
This shouldn’t come as a surprise, as Russia was the world’s third largest producer of oil in 2020. The country has several state-owned oil companies including Rosneft and Gazprom.
Coal-fired power plants are still being used across the EU, though most member states expect to completely phase them out by 2030.
Russia has the second largest coal reserves in the world. In 2020, it mined 328 million metric tons, making it the sixth largest producer globally.
Natural gas is commonly used to heat buildings and water. A majority of the EU’s supply comes from Russia via the Nord Stream series of pipelines.
Nord Stream 1 is the longest sub-sea pipeline in the world and was completed in 2011. It starts from the Russian city of Vyborg and connects to the EU through Germany.
Nord Stream 2 is a recently constructed expansion which was expected to double the project’s capacity. Germany has since halted the approval process for this pipeline in response to Russia’s 2022 invasion of Ukraine.
In retaliation against Western sanctions, Russia has announced an impending ban on exports of certain goods and raw materials.
European gas prices skyrocketed in response, as many fear that Russia could cut off natural gas supplies. This, of course, would have very negative effects on both consumers and businesses.
In early March 2022, both the European Commission and the International Energy Agency (IEA) introduced proposals on how Europe could reduce its energy dependency.
We must become independent from Russian oil, coal and gas. We simply cannot rely on a supplier who explicitly threatens us.
– Ursula von der Leyen, President of the European Commission
Cutting off one’s biggest supplier is likely to cause issues, especially when dealing with something as critical as energy. Few countries have the capacity (or willingness) to immediately replace Russian imports.
The proposals also discussed options for boosting Europe’s domestic output, though the commission’s report notably excluded nuclear power. For various reasons, nuclear remains a polarizing topic in Europe, with countries taking either a pro or anti stance.
Interactive Map: Crude Oil Pipelines and Refineries of the U.S. and Canada
Mapped: Gas Prices in America at All-Time Highs
Interactive Map: Crude Oil Pipelines and Refineries of the U.S. and Canada
Who Are the Russian Oligarchs?
Mapped: Gas Prices in America at All-Time Highs
The Clean Energy Employment Shift, by 2030
A Recent History of U.S. Sanctions on Russia
The Science of Nuclear Weapons, Visualized
Explore North America’s crude oil pipelines and refineries across the U.S. and Canada in our interactive map.
Published
on
By
Pipelines are the primary method of transporting crude oil around the world, delivering oil and its derivative products swiftly to refineries and empowering reliant businesses.
And North America is a major oil hub. The U.S. and Canada alone are home to more than 90,000 miles of crude oil and petroleum product pipelines, along with more than 140 refineries that can process around 20 million barrels of oil every day.
This interactive graphic uses data from Rextag to map out crude oil pipelines and refineries across the U.S. and Canada, showcasing individual pipeline diameter and daily refinery throughput.
Since 2010, U.S. crude oil production has more than doubled from 5.4 million barrels a day to more than 11.5 million. Meanwhile, the pipeline networks needed to transport this newly produced oil have only expanded by roughly 56%.
Today, the largest pipeline network across the U.S. and Canada (with a diameter of at least 10 inches) is the 14,919 mile network managed by Plains, which spans from the northwestern tip of Alberta all the way down to the southern coasts of Texas and Louisiana.
Source: Rextag
Enbridge owns the next largest crude oil pipeline network, with 12,974 miles of crude oil pipelines that are at least 10 inches in diameter. The Canadian company, one of the world’s largest oil companies, transports about 30% of the crude oil produced in North America.
Following the networks of Plains and Enbridge, there’s a steep drop off in the length of pipeline networks, with Sunoco’s crude oil pipeline network spanning about half the length of Enbridge’s at 6,409 miles.
These various sprawling pipeline networks initially carry crude oil to refineries, where it is processed into gasoline, diesel fuel, and other petroleum products.
The refineries with the largest throughput in North America are all located in the Gulf Coast (PADD 3), with the five refineries that process more than 500,000 barrels per day all located in the states of Louisiana and Texas.
Source: Rextag
While Texas and Louisiana have six refineries that process more than 400,000 barrels per day, there are only two other facilities outside of these states with the same kind of throughput, located in Whiting, Indiana (435,000 barrels per day) and Fort McMurray, Alberta (465,000 barrels per day).
Fort McMurray’s facility is an upgrader, which differs from refineries as it upgrades heavy oils like bitumen into lighter synthetic crude oil which flows through pipelines more easily. Many oil refineries aren’t able to directly convert bitumen, which is extracted from oil sands like those found in Alberta, making upgraders a necessary part in the production and processing of crude oil from oil sands.
The development of new pipelines remains a contentious issue in Canada and the U.S., with the cancellation of the Keystone XL pipeline emblematic of growing anti-pipeline sentiment. In 2021, only 14 petroleum liquids pipeline projects were completed in the U.S., which was the lowest amount of new pipelines and expansions since 2013.
But domestic energy production is once again in the spotlight due to the U.S. ban on Russian oil imports and Russia’s impending export ban on raw materials. North American consumers are now facing surging gasoline and energy prices as foreign oil is proving to be far less reliable in times of geopolitical turmoil.
It’s important to note that pipelines are not a perfect solution, as leaks and spills in just the last decade have resulted in billions of dollars of damages. From 2010 to 2020, the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration recorded 983 incidents that resulted in 149,000 spilled and unrecovered barrels of oil, five fatalities, 27 injuries, and more than $2.5B in damages.
But over the past five years, liquid pipeline incidents have fallen by 21% while pipeline mileage and barrels delivered have increased by more than 27%. Along with these infrastructure improvements, pipeline developers and operators emphasize the lack of better alternatives, as freight and seaborne transportation are both far less efficient and result in more carbon emissions.
Currently, pipelines remain key components of energy consumption across the U.S. and Canada, and as global energy markets face supply squeezes, international sanctions, and geopolitical turbulence, the focus on them has grown.
This map looks at gas prices across various states, and historical context for today’s sky-high prices at the pump.
Published
on
By
In recent days, gas prices have skyrocketed to all-time highs.
According to the American Automobile Association (AAA), the national average price of regular unleaded gas has reached $4.25 per gallon as of March 21st, 2022. This is the first time since 2008 that gas prices had exceeded the $4 per gallon mark.
The price of gas was already rising two weeks before the Russian invasion of Ukraine, owing to the increased demand due to the lifting of COVID restrictions. But when the war broke out, the price of regular gas jumped 41¢ during the first week. This surge in prices could add up to $2,000 in annual cost to the average American household.
While the price at the pump sits at $4.25 per gallon on average, it’s worth mentioning that prices range quite substantially depending on the state. California has the highest average price at $5.86 per gallon. On the other extreme, Kansas has an average price of $3.77 per gallon.
There are eight states where gas prices are above $4.50 per gallon, and three states where the price is above $5: California, Hawaii, and Nevada.
Here are the 10 states or districts with the highest gas prices:
There are 16 states where gas prices are under $4 per gallon. Here are the 10 states with the lowest gas prices:
There are a few reasons why gas prices can vary from state to state. State taxes play a big role in the final price at the pump, and they can range from 57.6¢ per gallon in Pennsylvania to 8¢ per gallon in Alaska.
Proximity to refineries is another contributing factor for cheaper gas. States like Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama often have lower prices than other regions.
Gas prices were on the rise due to an oil supply shortage. When war broke out, there was an additional price surge due to sanctions or bans on Russian oil exports by the West.
It’s also worth noting that even as the price of oil begins to fall once again, there is typically a lag before prices at the pump begin to ease for consumers.
The Energy Information Administration projects that average spot price of Brent crude oil will be $105.22 per barrel this year, a $22 difference compared to its original February forecast. As a result, many experts are expecting that gas prices could stay near or above $4 per gallon for the rest of the year.
Mapped: Global Happiness Levels in 2022
Mapped: All the World’s Military Personnel
Where Does the World’s Ultra-Wealthy Population Live Today?
Visualizing Ukraine’s Top Trading Partners and Products
A Decade of Elon Musk’s Tweets, Visualized
The World’s Billionaires, by Generation
The Science of Nuclear Weapons, Visualized
Putting EV Valuations Into Perspective
Copyright © 2022 Visual Capitalist

source