Carlin-Type Gold Deposits: Everything You Need to Know – Visual Capitalist

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The following content is sponsored by Nevada Exploration
High-resolution version
Nevada is one of the world’s most productive gold-mining regions, and it’s the high-grade Carlin-type gold deposits (CTGDs) that put the Silver State on the gold mining map.
Carlin-type gold deposits contain “invisible” or microscopic particles of gold that are deposited within a mineral called pyrite in sedimentary rocks. Needless to say, these deposits are named after the discovery of the Carlin Gold Deposit in 1961, which was the first of its kind.
Today, Carlin-type deposits make up the bulk of Nevada’s gold production. This infographic from our sponsor Nevada Exploration details everything you need to know about CTGDs.
Nevada’s CTGDs contain 255 million ounces of gold, representing one of only six gold belts of this size in the world. Furthermore, 84% or 214 million ounces of Nevada’s CTGD gold is concentrated in just three camps:
So, just how are these massive deposits of invisible gold formed?
The rocks that host CTGDs are typically found close to major geological structures in the Earth’s crust. These structures include:
These fractured zones act as a ‘plumbing system’ to allow mineral-rich hydrothermal fluids to flow up from the depths of the Earth’s crust.
The host rocks of CTGDs need to be permeable enough for hydrothermal fluids to flow from the fractured structures (the plumbing) into the host rocks, where minerals will be eventually deposited.
Host rocks are places for the gold to be deposited. CTGDs typically form within layers of limestone rocks that were laid down millions of years ago. When hot hydrothermal fluids hit these rocks, they dissolve easily, and this reaction deposits microscopic gold within the mineral called pyrite we mentioned earlier.
Hydrothermal fluids are super-heated water solutions that flow up from deep within the Earth’s crust. These are the vehicles that carry gold and other elements into the host rock, often leaving geological clues behind for explorers to follow.
Along with gold, CTGD hydrothermal fluids carry arsenic, mercury, antimony, and thallium, known as ‘CTGD pathfinders’. These create ‘footprints’ that are important clues to finding the gold. Additionally, hydrothermal fluids need to contain sufficient concentrations of gold for the deposit to be economically viable.
The discovery of CTGDs has made Nevada a leading gold producer globally. However, discovery and production rates have crashed since the late 1990s, despite more money being spent on exploration.
But if explorers look in the right places, there could be plenty of Carlin-type gold left to find.
After the formation of CTGDs millions of years ago, Nevada’s bedrock was broken up into large blocks creating valleys and mountains, known as basin and range respectively.
Therefore, Nevada’s Carlin-type gold was distributed equally in both the mountain ranges and the valley basins. The deposits in the mountain ranges lay in exposed bedrock, making them easier to find. However, erosion from the ranges covered the valley basins with tens to hundreds of meters of sand and gravel.
The unexplored under cover bedrock area is bigger than the exposed areas already explored, and analysts expect that it contains over 200 million ounces of gold. But finding under cover gold will not be easy using conventional exploration methods. To meet this challenge and unlock the second half of Nevada’s gold endowment, explorers are leveraging new technology to search for hidden CTGDs.
Nevada Exploration is an early leader in applying new technology to uncover the second half of Carlin-type gold in Nevada.
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By 2030, the cultured meat market could be worth $25 billion. Before you invest, here are the answers to your burning questions.
Investors are injecting the cellular agriculture market with billions of dollars and making big bets on the future of cultured foods—otherwise known as cell-based, or lab-grown foods.
With more countries now evaluating the regulation of these products, could this be the year consumers embrace cultured meat products with open arms?
To answer your burning questions about investing in this nascent space, here’s everything you need to know from our sponsor CULT Food Science.
Cultured meat is genuine animal meat that is produced by cultivating animal cells in a controlled environment—eliminating the need to farm animals for food. Here is a step-by-step guide showing how cultured meat (also known as clean meat) is made:
Step 1:
Tissue is taken from the animal, for the purpose of extracting stem cells and creating cell lines.

Step 2:
The extracted stem cell lines are cultivated in a nutrient-rich environment, mimicking in-animal tissue growth and producing muscle fibers inside a bioreactor.
Step 3:
The muscle fibers are processed and mixed with additional fats and ingredients to assemble the finished meat product.
Because cultured meat is made of the same cell types and structure found in animal tissue, the sensory and nutritional profiles are like-for-like.
The benefits of cultured meat are three-pronged, in that there are a wide range of benefits for the planet, for people, and for animals that include:
As cultured meat products enter the mainstream, additional benefits such as affordability can be added to this list. According to experts, buying cultured meat may one day be cheaper than buying conventional meat products.
While consumer awareness of cultured food products is currently low, acceptance is growing across the globe. In fact, almost one-third of UK consumers are willing to try cultured meat because of its less intensive impact on the environment compared to conventional meat.
Depending on factors such as strong consumer demand, price parity, and innovation in cellular agriculture, the cultured meat market could explode within the next decade and be worth $25 billion by 2030 according to McKinsey.
Interestingly, the success of the cultured meat market will also bleed into other adjacent industries such as dairy, eggs, seafood, chocolate, and honey.
While we are merely in the early chapters of the cultured meat story, many countries are already spearheading the movement.
As cultured food products continue to edge their way into grocery stores, more regulatory approval pathways will become clear.
Capital flow into the cultured meat industry has shot up in recent years and shows no signs of slowing down.
According to Pitchbook, $366 million worth of investment was pumped into the market in 2020. Fast forward to 2021, and that figure jumps to $1 billion according to other sources—however it must be noted that this figure is merely an estimate.
Investments are coming from major companies such as Cargill, Mitsubishi, and Tyson. While celebrities such as Bill Gates and Richard Branson are also putting their money where their mouth is and fueling the growth of the industry.
So can you expect to see cultured meat products on the shelves of your local grocery store in the years to come? All signs point to yes.
CULT Food Science is an innovative investment platform advancing the technology behind the future of food with an exclusive focus on cultured meat, cultured dairy, and cell-based foods.
The company’s global portfolio spans four continents and includes exposure to a diverse pipeline of technologies and products, including:
Want to stay updated? Click here to subscribe to the CULT Food Science mailing list.
The cannabis industry has made monumental strides but is still in its infancy. Check out why cannabis can be worth billions more by 2024.
The global stance on cannabis is changing rapidly.
With a wave of medical and recreational legalization occurring, there are now 70 countries with some form of legalization. As billions of investment dollars pour in, the cannabis industry finds itself entering a brand new chapter.
This infographic from eToro provides key information for investors on how the global cannabis market is making significant strides forward.
In just a few short years since legalization momentum kicked off, societal views on cannabis have changed tremendously. Examples of this include:
This shifting dynamic is part of why the global cannabis industry now generates over $20 billion in legal recreational sales on an annual basis.
The title for the world’s largest cannabis market belongs to the U.S.—generating more than $16 billion in sales in 2020. However, their regulatory landscape is also one of the trickiest to navigate, as federal legalization has yet to occur despite over 30 states having legalized cannabis in some form.
While this unique situation leaves a lot of potential money off the table, it also provides lots of potential upside for the industry should legalization trends persist. In 2022, Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Delaware are considered likely to legalize, which would take the small tally of states without any form of legal cannabis from 14 to 11.
Here’s how cannabis sales figures compare in various regions around the world:
This multi-billion dollar market is supported by a robust supply chain consisting of growers, retailers, support systems, and biotechnology companies. Each will become more vital, as the industry continues to grow and elevate to new highs. In 2020, consumer spend crossed past $20 billion, and will spike towards $37 billion by 2023.
But that’s just the beginning of the growth story.
Compared to other industries, cannabis has had a very slow start. For decades, innovation has been relatively idle given factors like prohibition which has lasted for nearly 90 years.
But nowadays, a swath of new cannabis products and technologies are hitting dispensary shelves.
For instance, the Californian market saw 7,000 additional new products in 2020 compared to 2019. Put another way, there was an average of 19 new products in dispensary shops, daily.
What’s more, some of these innovations can be seen in product popularity ranks:
Flower continues to dominate as the traditional method to consume. However, non-combustible methods like edibles and vape products have gained traction more recently, with vapes expected to see a 30% rise in sales in 2022. In addition, CBD products are growing fast in popularity, especially amongst women who make up 60% of CBD sales.
In the years to come, thousands of additional new products and technologies will pop up, suggesting that product preferences may continue to adapt.
The cannabis industry’s momentum has stirred up investor interest across the board. This can be seen through the average size of cannabis equity capital raises, which has grown 165% from $7.5 million in 2020 to $19.1 million in 2021. Momentum can also be seen through the cannabis stock indexes, which are showing signs of recovery.
But where does cannabis go from here? Things are moving rapidly, and by 2024, the global cannabis space is expected to be worth a massive $103 billion. Europe and North America will make up the largest components of this market, valued at $39.1 billion and $37.9 billion, respectively. But other regions are also forecasted to demonstrate some impressive numbers.
Here’s what the forecasted 2024 global legal cannabis market will break down:
At over $100 billion, the cannabis industry’s market value can potentially eclipse that of online betting and gaming.
eToro’s CannabisCare Smart Portfolio* gives investors direct access to the growing cannabis market.
Curated by experienced and proven investment teams, the thematic portfolio offers exposure to a broad range companies invested in cannabis, with no management fees.

*Your capital is at risk.
Smart Portfolios is a portfolio management product, provided by eToro Europe Ltd., which is authorized and regulated by the Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission.

Smart Portfolios should not be considered as exchange traded funds, nor as hedge funds.
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